Requirements Management - SRM

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19.8.06

Requirements Fundamentals: the basis for effective testing

Pod tímto názvem opublikovala známá autorka Sussane Robertson velmi cenný článek. Specifikace požadavků je v mnoha případech sama o sobě natolik složitá, že se zapomíná na to, že jde o jednu část životního cyklu projektu, která má úzké vazby na všechny jeho fáze. Autorka článku, na který touto zprávou upozorňuji, se věnuje vazbě specifikace požadavků na fázi testování. Nadpisy částí článku zní:
- Contents of the Requirements Specification
- Contents of Individual Requirements
- Keeping Track of Connections
Několik vět z úvodu článku:
"We accept that testing the software is an integral part of building a system. However, if the software is based on inaccurate requirements then, despite any amount of testing, the software will be unsatisfactory. Instead of limiting our testing to code, we should start testing as soon as we start work on the requirements for a product. The problem is that requirements are often written in loose and inconsistent ways that make them impossible to test. This paper describes a quality gateway that defines testpoints that a requirement has to pass in order to enter the requirements specification. These gateway tests are concerned with ensuring that the requirements are accurate, and do not cause problems by being unsuitable for the design and implementation stages later in the project. The set of requirements tests cover relevance, coherency, traceability, completeness, consistency, connectivity and other qualities that successful requirements must have. A good place to start is to consider what we expect to find in a requirements specification; here we have a problem because “requirements specification” is one of the most elastic terms in current use. Some specifications contain purely functional requirements, others include non-functional or quality requirements, some contain all the project constraints, some specify the stakeholders, some include business goals, some concentrate on the solution – and all these things are at differing levels of detail - the variations are endless. However without some consistent agreement on what you intend your specification to contain it is
impossible to test the quality of its contents."
Autorka v článku odkazuje na šablonu ( Volere ), o které hovořím v jedné z předchozích zpráv v tomto weblogu.
Vaší pozornosti při čtení článku určitě neujde seznam kontrolních otázek:
• Does the specification contain all the requirements components?
• Does the specification contain all the relationships between components?
• Are all types of requirements defined?
• Is each requirement uniquely identifiable?
• Does each requirement contain all components on the shell?
• Is each goal measurable?
• Is the work context defined?
• Does the event list agree with the work context?
• Are all the event inputs and outputs defined?
• Can you quantify why each constraint exists?
• Is each constraint measurable?
• Are the stakeholders identified by name?
• Are the users’ characteristics defined?
• Are the stakeholders’ responsibilities defined?
• Can you trace the product use cases back to the business events?
• Are the terms used in the fit criteria defined in the requirements specification?
• Are the terms used consistently?
• Is it possible to write a cost-effective test to prove or disprove any solution to this requirement according to its fit criterion?
• Is each requirement really a requirement or is it a solution?
• Are conflicts between requirements identified?
Doporučené zdroje týkající se tématu článku
- Gilb, Tom with Susannah Finzi. Principles of Software Engineering Management. Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, England, 1988.
- Jackson, Michael. Software Requirements & Specifications: a Lexicon of Practice, Principles and Prejudices. Addison-Wesley Longman, Wokingham, England, 1996.
- Pardee, William. To Satisfy & Delight Your Customer. Dorset House, New York, 1996. Robertson, James & Suzanne. Mastering the Requirements Process. Addison-Wesley,
London, 1999.
Odkaz na adresu s plným zněním článku Sussane Robertson: ZDE